Advice for Parents from Start Talking

How can I prevent my child from using alcohol, marijuana or other drugs?

Believe it or not, you have the greatest influence on your children’s decisions about alcohol and other drugs.  Even when children reach the teen years, they still care about what you say and think.  However, they are very good at hiding this!

Alcohol and marijuana are the drugs most commonly used by young people.  It’s important to know how drugs affect the teen brain, so that you can teach your child the risks to them now, as well as future consequences.

In addition to talking early and often with your children and teens about the risks (see links about this in the left column), it’s important to know about three proven ways you can prevent alcohol and other drug use:

  • Bonding: Children are less likely to drink when their parents are involved in their lives and when children and parents feel close to each other. Family conflict and lack of bonding increase the risk of drinking and drug use.  To increase bonding:     – Give kids at least 15 minutes of one-on-one time daily
    - Do fun things together
    - Compliment the positive and healthy choices your child makes
    - Eat as a family five times per week
  • Boundaries: This is about setting clear rules early and repeating them often, practicing ways to say no to drugs, and enforcing appropriate consequences any time the rules are broken.  Help your kids choose their friends wisely.
  • Monitoring:  Always know what your kids are doing.  Help them plan safe and fun activities.  Drop in occasionally, unannounced.  Checking in with them between 3 p.m. and 6 p.m. is especially important.   When they ask to spend time with frends, ask the 5 Ws:

1.  Where are you going?
2.  What will you be doing?
3.  Who are you with?
4.  When will you be home?
5.  Will there be alcohol, marijuana or other drugs?

Learn the risks of marijuana use for teens and what you can do in this parent guide.

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With poisonings on the rise, parents reminded to lock up marijuana edibles

The Washington Poison Center is warning parents about an increase in calls about kids accidentally eating marijuana-edibles. 

A variety of candy-style products exist in the medical marijuana market. Marijuana-edibles can be found in a variety of shapes, sizes, and types that often resemble traditional candies and sweets in their product name and/or appearance, such as brownies, candy bars, cookies, and gummy bears. Both medical and recreational marijuana contain enough THC, the active chemical in marijuana, to cause symptoms in both kids and adults

The percentage of marijuana exposures among kids ages 1-12 has increased since 2013 from 39% to 47% and represents an alarming trend,” said Dr. Alex Garrard, Clinical Managing Director of the Washington Poison Center.  “This may be due to marijuana edibles being more available, and the lack of child-resistant packaging,” added Garrard.

Parents, grandparents and caregivers are reminded to:

  • Make sure any marijuana products in the home are locked up and out of reach, just as you would with medications.
  • Throw away any candy your kids bring home if it has an unfamiliar brand name.

Call the Washington Poison Center immediately at 1-800-222-1222  if you suspect an accidental poisoning from marijuana edibles.  Signs of poisoning include nausea and vomiting.  All calls are free, confidential and protected by the Good Samaritan Law.

For more information about marijuana edibles, visit the Poison Center website.

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Colorado’s ‘Pot Pregnancies’ Birthing New Generation of Crack Babies

Feb. 24, 2015
Jennifer Kerns

What a long, strange trip it’s been for pot legalization in Colorado.

First, the law came under fire last year for not protecting youth as scores of children were taken to emergency rooms after ingesting their parents’ pot edibles.

Just a few days ago, nine former heads of the Drug Enforcement Administration — both Republican and Democrat — signed onto an amicus brief urging the U.S. Supreme Court to overturn Colorado’s legalization of marijuana citing numerous public safety concerns.
Now, Colorado health professionals are coming forward to report an emerging trend: expectant mothers who are addicted to pot.

The emerging health crisis is creating what is undoubtedly our generation’s version of 1980s “crack babies.”

Health practitioners specializing in the field of Obstetrics & Gynecology spoke to me on condition of anonymity to report an alarming rise in pregnant patients showing up in emergency rooms and doctors’ offices and presenting mysterious complications including abdominal pains, cold sweats, shakiness, insomnia, weight loss and a host of psychological problems.

According to the physicians, as routine pot smokers cease consumption of marijuana upon learning they are pregnant, it can lead to violent or painful withdrawal from tetrahydrocannabinol — also known as THC — the addictive substance found in marijuana.

The emerging situation is not unlike babies who are addicted to crack.
Physicians say the exact cause and treatment of symptoms are initially difficult to pinpoint as patients either don’t admit to prior pot use, or aren’t aware that weeks-old or even months-old marijuana consumption can remain in the body and cause such withdrawals, thus affecting children in the womb.

While the physicians in Colorado commend pot users for refraining from the use of marijuana during pregnancy, they regret to inform the patient that it is the first step in a potentially long battle.

According to the Cleveland Clinic, the presence of THC in fetuses can lead to impairment of fetus growth and low birth weight.

The March of Dimes reports that the presence of marijuana can lead to premature birth. It can also create problems with brain development which may later affect a child’s “behavior, memory, problem-solving skills and ability to pay attention.” It can also create neonatal abstinence syndrome, in which a baby gets addicted to a drug before birth “then goes through withdrawal after birth.”

In order to treat symptoms as well as help alleviate the pain of the withdrawal process, the physicians in Colorado report they have had to reintroduce doses of THC to expectant mothers, which of course leaves their babies susceptible to addiction and the complications above which often must be treated in neonatal units.

Cases of THC addictions during pregnancy are so much on the rise that Colorado’s health professionals have begun to bone up on the subject matter of THC and other complications from pot.

At a recent three-day nursing conference, Colorado OB-GYN nurses spent the entire final day of the conference covering THC-related topics.

All of this presents new challenges for Colorado which is already struggling to keep up with demands placed upon the state by Obamacare.

And now that another state has legalized pot, these cases could become an epidemic.

These gestations, which I call “pot pregnancies,” are yet another chapter in a legalization experiment that has gone horribly awry at an expense to public health and to children — both born and unborn — who have no say in the matter.

While the Colorado legislature rushes to fix many side effects of legalization one has to ask, “Does the benefit of legalizing this substance outweigh the risk to public health?”

Those who suggest it does are simply blowing smoke.

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Southern Oregon medical marijuana growers fear industrial hemp could ruin their crops

By Noelle Crombie | The Oregonian
February 17, 2015

Southern Oregon marijuana growers want to ban industrial hemp production from the region out of fear that hemp may pollinate their crops and render them worthless.

Some outdoor marijuana growers want industrial hemp cultivation to be limited to eastern Oregon – far from their lucrative marijuana crops. At the very least, they don’t want hemp in Josephine, Jackson and Douglas counties.

Compared to Oregon’s marijuana legalization movement, the effort to launch an industrial hemp industry in Oregon has been an understated one propelled by a small but passionate group of advocates. When one of them, Edgar Winters, of Eagle Point, got a permit this month to grow industrial hemp on 25 acres in the heart of the state’s outdoor marijuana growing region, his neighbors were alarmed.

Allowing industrial hemp in an area known for churning out high-grade marijuana could undermine the industry, growers argue.

“You don’t come into the middle of cannabis growing country and try to put up a hemp farm unless you don’t know about it, unless you really don’t know how far hemp pollen can travel,” said Casey Branham, a Jackson County medical marijuana grower who supports industrial hemp but wants it grown elsewhere in the state.

“It basically makes the medicine worthless,” he said.

Branham and his neighbors worry hemp pollen will find its way to their unpollinated female cannabis flowers, known as sensimilla, slowing their growth and leading to seeds. The result: weak, seedy marijuana.

“No one will buy seeded flowers, period,” said Cedar Grey, a Williams medical marijuana grower. “The flower market is so competitive these days. You have to have world-class flowers. Anything that is seeded is reminiscent of the 1960s or pot from Mexico. No one is interested in that at all.”

And it’s not just southern Oregon’s outdoor marijuana growers who are worried about hemp’s implications. Portland’s indoor marijuana growers worry about hemp pollen drifting into their warehouses through ventilation systems or being tracked into their operations on workers’ shoes.

Shane McKee, a medical marijuana grower who owns two Portland dispensaries, said the potential complications posed by industrial hemp have caught cannabis growers by surprise.

“Nobody really saw the repercussions,” said McKee.

Hemp and marijuana are different types of the same species, Cannabis sativa. But hemp lacks marijuana’s most coveted component: THC, or tetrahydrocannabinol. In hemp’s case, the gene that fires up marijuana’s high THC production is essentially turned off. So while hemp’s sturdy stalks provide fiber for textiles and its seeds can be added to yogurt and smoothies, the plant is a lousy choice for people seeking marijuana’s high.

Anndrea Hermann, a hemp advocate who lives in Canada and teaches a course on the crop at Oregon State University, said marijuana growers’ concerns are legitimate.

“Is there a risk? Yes, there is a risk to the marijuana growers,” said Hermann, who also serves as president of the Hemp Industries Association and owns a hemp products company. “And I will tell you it’s a hard pill to swallow.”

Winters is the first to obtain a license to grow industrial hemp from the Oregon Department of Agriculture. Another three people have applied, said Ron Pence, operations manager for commodity inspection for the agency, which oversees the state’s new industrial hemp program.

Pence said the agency has authority to limit where some agricultural crops, such as rapeseed, are cultivated. But it does not have that authority when it comes to industrial hemp. 

“It would need a legislative fix,” he said.

Oregon lawmakers have taken note of marijuana growers’ objections. Rep. Peter Buckley, D-Ashland, said growers peppered his office with emails once Winters’ plans became public. He said lawmakers are exploring potential solutions to protect both crops.

“Nobody wants one crop to endanger another crop,” he said.

Oregon’s robust outdoor marijuana growing culture sets it apart from places like Kentucky, which also has a state hemp program. Oregon’s outdoor growers are organized, have an attorney and even a lobbyist. While Kentucky’s agriculture officials are enthusiastic boosters of industrial hemp, marijuana remains illegal.

“Marijuana growers are not so vocal” in Kentucky, said Eric Steenstra, president of Vote Hemp, a national hemp advocacy group. “They are not in a position to be able to call up their legislators to ask for a bill protecting their crops.”

Winters, for his part, doesn’t see a major problem cultivating hemp near marijuana crops. He said the growing cycle for hemp is shorter than the one for outdoor marijuana and that an earlier harvest means it would not pose a threat to cannabis.

“It’s been doable all over the world,” said Winters, who’s also a medical marijuana grower. “People have misconceptions about industrial hemp.”

He said marijuana growers need more “education and training and knowledge” about hemp and that he plans to meet with outdoor growers to address their concerns.

He said he’s received strong criticism from marijuana growers and even personal threats since word of his plan spread.

“It’s a viable crop,” he said. “There is no way we are going to be forced out of the county. I can tell you that. We are here to stay.”

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Potent weed is worse for you than the mild stuff — and it’s hard to find anything else these days

By Christopher Ingraham February 17 at 11:25 AM

Frequent use of high-potency weed may be linked to an increased risk of having a psychotic episode. But milder strains of marijuana, even when used heavily, don’t appear to carry any increased risk of psychosis.

Those are the headline findings of an important new study published in the journal Lancet Psychiatry yesterday. Researchers obtained data from 410 South London patients sent to the hospital for a first-episode psychotic incident (meaning they hadn’t been previously diagnosed with disorder), and compared it to data from 370 control individuals living in the same area.

Compared with someone who had never smoked, a weekly user of high-potency weed (defined here as having greater than 15 percent THC content) was about three times as likely to be diagnosed with a psychotic disorder. For daily users, the risk increased to five times.

On the other hand, the researchers found no link between frequent use of low-potency weed (< 5 percent THC content) and psychotic disorder.

In studies like this one, it’s important to remember that correlation doesn’t indicate causation. “The authors clearly point out that they cannot be sure the association seen in their study is causal,” writes Suzi Gage, a University of Bristol researcher who studies the link between marijuana use and psychosis, in The Guardian newspaper. ”The people who choose to smoke cannabis might be different in a variety of other ways, which could be the cause of the increase in psychosis risk. Although you can control for these in analyses, you can never be sure you’ve adequately adjusted for them.”

Still, the different findings for smokers of low- and high-potency weed are significant, and worth digging into — especially considering that most of the marijuana consumed in the U.S. today is of the high-octane variety.

As the chart shows, the average strength of weed seized by federal authorities has steadily risen over time. Retail outlets in Denver and elsewhere advertise strains that contain 25 percent THC or more. As legalization opponents are forever fond of saying, this isn’t your daddy’s weed.

Just as you’d expect a daily pint of vodka to take a greater toll on your health than a daily pint of beer, it seems reasonable to posit that frequent use of high-octane weed will have different health consequences than a daily toke of the milder stuff. But due at least partially to the economic incentives imposed by cannabis prohibition, low-potency weed is typically harder to come by these days.

Today’s illicit weed has a lot in common with prohibition-era moonshine. To maximize profits while avoiding detection, many of today’s pot growers maintain a singular focus on boosting THC content to the exclusion of all other considerations. The weed they produce is generally good for getting you very high, but little else. The absence of a regulatory framework — particularly labeling requirements that let you know what you’re smoking – means that buying weed on the black market today is akin to buying a bottle of booze without knowing whether it contains beer or vodka.

And chemically speaking, marijuana is a more complicated substance than alcohol. The high of a given strain of bud is determined not just by THC, but by the interaction of dozens of chemical compounds in the plant that researchers are only just now beginning to understand. One of those compounds, cannabidiol or CBD, is actually known to have anti-psychotic effects, and it eases the paranoia that sometimes comes with getting really, really high. CBD and THC are present in roughly equal quantities in low-potency weed, but in the high-octane stuff CBD is essentially non-existent. This is likely one reason why the Lancet study found higher odds of psychosis among users who liked their weed strong.

As prohibition eases and legal markets open up, growers now have the breathing room to select for traits beyond high THC content. Demand from new users looking to experience a social high, rather than four hours of couch lock, will likely drive this. The end result may be a resurgence of milder strains of weed that are more akin to fine wines than to bathtub gin. From a mental health standpoint, they’ll be safer too.


Christopher Ingraham writes about politics, drug policy and all things data. He previously worked at the Brookings Institution and the Pew Research Center.

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Duncan Nugget® #359: When you communicate, you shape a person’s perception of who you are.

We had the pleasure of meeting Al, a few years back, at a WA State Prevention Summit. He shared his advice with the youth as an Emcee of the conference, as well as, did a workshop for the youth on communication and seeking gainful employment. As our teens look for summer jobs or look for meaningful long-term positions, perhaps they’ll gleam some advice from this article by Al Duncan.

6 Reasons Young Employees Need Better Written Communication Skills

“Well… what happened?”  

“I told him if he wanted a job, send me an email and he sent me a text disguised as an email.”  

“Nooo. Really? Man… that’s messed up. I think he’s doing pretty good in school.”  

“For me that’s even worse. He’s in college! I mean really, Al… does he even know what punctuation or a complete sentence is?!”  

—irritated business owner talking to Al Duncan about a potential employee

New on

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The Marijuana Report February 2015

Words matter. If we can see the difference, 
why can’t we speak the difference?

The green tubes in the picture below contain a cannabinoid, one of more than 100 components scientists have identified in the marijuana plant. This particular cannabinoid is cannabidiol (CBD), or Epidiolex, which GW Pharmaceuticals extracts from the marijuana plant, purifies, and mixes in oil to treat children with rare forms of epilepsy. Some 98% of this medicine is CBD with trace amounts of other cannabinoids, including less than 0.2% of THC, the cannabinoid that produces a “high.” Epidiolex is in FDA clinical trials in the US and is expected to be approved soon. If it is, doctors will be able to prescribe it for children who suffer intractable seizures. No laws will need to be changed.

Pictured below Epidiolex is a marijuana plant. Add another 400 chemical components to the cannabinoids it contains. Few have been studied. Legalization advocates, and marijuana growers, processors, and distributors who stand to make fortunes, have convinced most Americans that this whole plant is medicine, or “medical marijuana.”

But the promise for medicine lies in the plant’s cannabinoids, not the whole plant itself. That promise is being investigated by scientists who are studying cannabinoids in test tubes or in animals but, with rare exceptions, not yet in humans. That hasn’t stopped legalization advocates from claiming that the whole marijuana plant itself can produce a result in humans that a specific cannabinoid has produced in a test tube. But a test tube result is not a fact; it’s an indication that a scientist should take the next step in the research process. And a finding that a single cannabinoid has a specific effect in a test tube cannot be applied to the whole marijuana plant consumed by a human.

At the 2015 annual meeting of the National Association for the Advancement of Science (NAAS) last Saturday, researchers conducted a symposium titled “Cannabis and Medicine: A New Frontier in Therapeutics.” According to materials promoting the symposium and press accounts of it, the researchers used the terms “medical marijuana” and cannabinoids interchangeably, an odd thing for scientists, for whom precision matters, to do.

One, Dr. Igor Grant of the University of California, San Diego, asserted, “‘There is no evidence for long-term damaging effects [of marijuana use] in adults,’” according to an account of the symposium written for Science Magazine, the publication of the NAAS. “Preliminary data linking marijuana use to an increased risk of schizophrenia have not been supported by further studies.”

That was Saturday. Yesterday, The Lancet published a study by 23 scientists who found that daily use of high-potency marijuana (about 16% THC and no CBD) quintupled the risk of developing a schizophrenic-like psychosis and weekend use tripled the risk among people ages 18 to 65. A major finding of the study is that potency and frequency of use are critical to determining the effect of marijuana on mental health, factors, according to one report, that are often overlooked by doctors.

Ironically underscoring the need to be precise in our language is a dispute reported today in Oregon where medical marijuana growers have asked a legislator for a bill that will ban the growing of hemp in counties with large medical-marijuana grows. They fear hemp will pollinate their high-THC marijuana and turn it into low-grade, 60s pot. “It basically makes the medicine worthless,” one grower said.

Click here to read an account of the NAAS marijuana symposium.
Click here to read an account of The Lancet study.
Click here to read The Lancet study itself.
Click here to read the Oregon story.

More than 18,000 readers clicked through to read the health report from Colorado featured in the February 4th issue of The Marijuana Report–and we only have 3,600 subscribers! Many of you shared that issue with others and apparently so did they. More than 7,000 people clicked through to the Colorado public safety report featured in our February 11th issue. Please take a bow. And thank you for being such effective networkers. For those who missed the report in the February 4th issue, click here; in the February 11th, click here.

National Families in Action and partners, Project SAM and the Treatment Research Institute, welcome our new readers. We hope you enjoy this weekly e-newsletter to keep up-to-date with all aspects of the marijuana story. Visit our website, The Marijuana Report.Org, and subscribe to E-Highlights to learn more.National Families in Action is a group of families, scientists, business leaders, physicians, addiction specialists, policymakers, and others committed to protecting children from addictive drugs. We advocate for:

  • Healthy, drug-free kids
  • Nurturing, addiction-free families
  • Scientifically accurate information and education
  • A nation free of Big Marijuana
  • Smart, safe, FDA-approved medicines developed from the cannabis plant (and other plants)
  • Expanded access to medicines in FDA clinical trials for children with epilepsy

What is our call to action?

  • Ask your leaders to establish FDA expanded access to Epidiolex® for children with epilepsy.
  • To protect children, adolescents, and young adults, ask your leaders not to legalize marijuana.
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E-Cigs and Vaping Webinar stats 2014

Members of our Prevention Coalition had a chance to partake in a E-Cigs and Vaping webinar sponsored by the Foundation of Healthy Generations

It was an excellent overview of the products and current trends among youth and adults.  There is also some highlights of current research regarding the use of the products for smoking cessation, and concerns regarding toxicants and irregularity of delivery, as well as youth poisoning.

The 2014 Healthy Youth Survey data for Washington State is showing that e-cig use has increased:



2012 2014
Grade 8 2 % 8 %
Grade 10 4 % 18 %
Grade 12 7 % 23 %


We hope to obtain our (San Juan Island) Healthy Youth Survey 2014 data in about one month.  Our 2012 data showed e-cigs as a delivery system of choice among our high school youth.

Keep reading the information as it comes available on these topics. This is an area that currently lacks any regulations and is not tested by the FDA.


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SJIPC Celebration Luncheon February 13th, 2015

We thank everyone that had an opportunity to join us for this year’s Celebration Luncheon. Over 50 community members representing nearly 25 sectors in the community were in attendance. The highlight of today’s meeting was the presentation by two local teens from FHHS, Echo Wood and Sammy Finch. Both teens have attended at least one SJIPC Youth Leadership Training event with us recently. They showcased their Project Prevention which they did for their Senior Project at FHHS. The youth have also been instrumental is creating a H.O.T.S Jr. Club at FHHM. Both teens want to make “prevention cool”! We are so proud of them.

(FYI: H.O.T.S. is Helping Out Teens Society at FHHS and now FHMS:)

Want to get involved in helping us out? Please call or stop by our office. Together, we make a bigger difference.

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Marijuana, Rx Misuse Raise Safety Concerns as Drugged Driving Increases

Feb 12, 2015
Coalition resources: Data Analysis
Drug type: Marijuana

The nation’s campaign to combat drunk driving continues to make our roads safer, but use of marijuana and prescription drugs is increasingly prominent on the highways, creating new safety questions, according to a pair of ground-breaking studies released this week by the Department of Transportation’s National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

One study, the latest version of NHTSA’s Roadside Survey of Alcohol and Drug Use by Drivers, found that the number of drivers with alcohol in their system has declined by nearly one-third since 2007, and by more than three-quarters since the first Roadside Survey in 1973. But that same survey found a large increase in the number of drivers using marijuana or other illegal drugs. In the 2014 survey, nearly one in four drivers tested positive for at least one drug that could affect safety.

“America made drunk driving a national issue and while there is no victory as long as a single American dies in an alcohol-related crash, a one-third reduction in alcohol use over just seven years shows how a focused effort and cooperation among the federal government, states and communities, law enforcement, safety advocates and industry can make an enormous difference,” NHTSA Administrator Mark Rosekind said in a news release. “At the same time, the latest Roadside Survey raises significant questions about drug use and highway safety. The rising prevalence of marijuana and other drugs is a challenge to everyone who is dedicated to saving lives and reducing crashes.”

The National Roadside Survey, conducted five times during the last 40 years, is a completely voluntary, anonymous survey that gathers data in dozens of locations across the country from drivers who agree to participate. Drivers are alerted by multiple roadside signs that a voluntary survey site is ahead, and researchers gather data from those who volunteer. Drivers are notified that the survey is completely voluntary and that collected information is entirely anonymous. NHTSA has worked with research experts, law enforcement agencies and privacy advocates to refine procedures and address any potential concerns.

The latest edition of the survey shows that the prevalence of alcohol use by drivers continues to drop. About 8 percent of drivers during weekend nighttime hours were found to have alcohol in their system, and just over 1 percent were found with 0.08 percent or higher breath alcohol content – the legal limit in every state. This is down by about 30 percent from the previous survey in 2007 and down 80 percent from the first survey in 1973.

But even as drinking and driving continues to fall, use of illegal drugs or medicines that can affect road safety is climbing. The number of weekend nighttime drivers with evidence of drugs in their system climbed from 16.3 percent in 2007 to 20 percent in 2014. The number of drivers with marijuana in their system grew by nearly 50 percent.

A second survey, the largest of its kind ever conducted, assessed whether marijuana use by drivers is associated with greater risk of crashes. The survey found that marijuana users are more likely to be involved in accidents, but that the increased risk may be due in part because marijuana users are more likely to be in groups at higher risk of crashes. In particular, marijuana users are more likely to be young men – a group already at high risk.

This was the most precisely controlled study of its kind yet conducted, but it measured the risk associated with marijuana at the levels found among drivers in a large community. Other studies using driving simulators and test tracks have found that marijuana at sufficient dosage levels will affect driver risk.

Jeff Michael, NHTSA’s associate administrator for research and program development, said, “Drivers should never get behind the wheel impaired, and we know that marijuana impairs judgment, reaction times and awareness. These findings highlight the importance of research to better understand how marijuana use affects drivers so states and communities can craft the best safety policies.”

The study, conducted in Virginia Beach, Va., gathered data over a 20-month period from more than 3,000 drivers who were involved in crashes, as well as a comparison group of 6,000 drivers who did not crash. The study found that drivers who had been drinking above the 0.08 percent legal limit had about 4 times the risk of crashing as sober drivers and those with blood alcohol levels at 0.15 percent or higher had 12 times the risk.

“Researchers have developed a deep body of knowledge about the link between drinking, driving and risk. We know drunk driving kills,” Rosekind said. “The combined message of these two surveys is that our work to understand and combat drunk driving is paying off, but that we have much to learn about how illegal drugs and prescription medicines affect highway safety – and that developing that knowledge is urgent, because more and more drivers have these drugs in their systems.”

NHTSA plans a series of additional studies to further understand the risk of drugged driving, including the Washington State Roadside Survey, which will assess risk in a state where marijuana has been legalized, and a simulator study with the National Institute on Drug Abuse to assess how drivers under the influence of drugs behave behind the wheel.


CADCA Building drug-free communities

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