Suicide Prevention

SAMHSA is a proud partner of the National Action Alliance for Suicide Prevention(link is external), a public-private partnership with more than 200 participating organizations advancing the national strategy for suicide prevention. SAMHSA funds the Suicide Prevention Resource Center to act as Executive Secretariat to the Action Alliance. Learn about the Action Alliance’s Your Life Matters! campaign, which gives faith communities of every tradition, philosophy, sect, or denomination an opportunity to dedicate one Sabbath each year, preferably corresponding to World Suicide Prevention Day, to celebrate life, hope, and reasons to live.

SAMHSA is committed to continuing to working with its federal partners and private organizations to provide states, territories, tribal entities, communities, and the public with the assistance and prevention resources they need. SAMHSA offers:

Learn more about:

Warning Signs of Suicidal Behavior

These signs may mean that someone is at risk for suicide. Risk is greater if the behavior is new, or has increased, and if it seems related to a painful event, loss, or change:

  • Talking about wanting to die or kill oneself
  • Looking for a way to kill oneself
  • Talking about feeling hopeless or having no reason to live
  • Talking about feeling trapped or being in unbearable pain
  • Talking about being a burden to others
  • Increasing the use of alcohol or drugs
  • Acting anxious or agitated; behaving recklessly
  • Sleeping too little or too much
  • Withdrawing or feeling isolated
  • Showing rage or talking about seeking revenge
  • Displaying extreme mood swings

Download the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline Wallet Card: Learn the Warning Signs – 2005 in English or en Español.

What You Can Do

If you believe someone may be thinking about suicide:

  • Ask them if they are thinking about killing themselves. (This will not put the idea into their head or make it more likely that they will attempt suicide.)
  • Listen without judging and show you care.
  • Stay with the person (or make sure the person is in a private, secure place with another caring person) until you can get further help.
  • Remove any objects that could be used in a suicide attempt.
  • Call SAMHSA’s National Suicide Prevention Lifeline at 1-800-273-TALK (8255) and follow their guidance.
  • If danger for self-harm seems imminent, call 911.

Everyone has a role to play in preventing suicide. For instance, faith communities can work to prevent suicide simply by fostering cultures and norms that are life-preserving, providing perspective and social support to community members, and helping people navigate the struggles of life to find a sustainable sense of hope, meaning, and purpose. For information about how you can help, visit the Suicide Prevention Resource Center’s customized information sheets for parents, teachers, co-workers, and others(link is external).

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Underage Drinking is Everyone’s Problem.

Teens don’t need alcohol to fit in, deal with stress, or have fun.

Alcohol can be harmful to the health of adolescents, but thankfully most young people ages 12 to 20 do not drink.

Talk, they listen. Parents are still the number 1 influence in their child’s life. Set rules, talk about expectations and the consequences of underage drinking.

Talking To Kids About Alcohol
5 Conversation Goals

1. Show you disapprove of underage drinking.

More than 80% of young people ages 10-18 say their parents are the leading influence on their decision to drink or not drink. So they really are listening, and it’s important that you send a clear and strong message.

2. Show you care about your child’s happiness and well-being.

Young people are more likely to listen when they know you’re on their side. Try to reinforce why you don’t want your child to drink—not just because you say so, but because you want your child to be happy and safe. The conversation will go a lot better if you’re working with, and not against, your child.

3. Show you’re a good source of information about alcohol.

You want your child to be making informed decisions about drinking, with reliable information about its dangers. You don’t want your child to be learning about alcohol from friends, the internet, or the media—you want to establish yourself as a trustworthy source of information.

4. Show you’re paying attention and you’ll notice if your child drinks.

You want to show you’re keeping an eye on your child, because young people are more likely to drink if they think no one will notice. There are many subtle ways to do this without prying.

5. Build your child’s skills and strategies for avoiding underage drinking.

Even if your child doesn’t want to drink, peer pressure is a powerful thing. It could be tempting to drink just to avoid looking uncool. To prepare your child to resist peer pressure, you’ll need to build skills and practice them.

Keep it low-key. Don’t worry, you don’t have to get everything across in one talk. Many small talks are better.

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This FRIDAY and SATURDAY only! See you there, if you dare!

This is a fundraiser for the San Juan Island Prevention Coalition thanks to the sponsors of the Friday Harbor Jolly Trolley and the San Juan County Fair! Come support our youth for leadership training opportunities, proceeds will help cover these costs! Thanks for your support! See you there, if you dare!


Contact Debbi Fincher 360-472-0803 or 

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Survey Work Ahead! Please share your input. Thank you!



The Community Prevention and Wellness Initiative (CPWI) Community Survey is an anonymous annual statewide survey administered by all of the CPWI coalitions in Washington state.

The Community Survey captures our local San Juan Island attitudes about teen alcohol and drug use, as well as prevention programming. This data helps to inform our coalition’s strategies, as well as the state strategies.

Thank you for taking the time, about 7-10 minutes, to help our local Prevention Coalition by answering these questions. This is an annual requirement for our funding, but more importantly, knowing the opinion of our community helps us to make informed decisions, and to help us better communicate the prevention work to the community. Thank you for helping our San Juan Island Prevention Coalition!


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Youth Mental Health First Aid

Recently, the San Juan Island Prevention Coalition offered an 8 hour training course on Youth Mental Health First Aid, a public education program, sponsored by a Project Aware grant with the Northwest Education Services District (NWESD). Our trainers, Dana King and Joyce Wells, used simulations and role-playing to demonstrate how to offer initial help in a mental health crisis and connect persons to the appropriate professional, social, peer, and self-help care. Many people are trained in First Aid and CPR, consider this another skill to have in your “tool kit”.

The research supports the need for such trainings. Self reporting data from middle and high school students in the Healthy Youth Survey 2016, from across the State, shows an increase in anxiety, stress, depression, thoughts and attempts of suicide. This program also teaches the common risk factors and warning signs of specific types of illnesses, like anxiety, depression, substance use, bipolar disorder, eating disorders and schizophrenia. Being more aware of the warning signs, gives us a chance to talk to the youth and help get them the support they need. Calling 911 is certainly appropriate if someone is in a mental health crisis.

This course highlights, if you suspect a child is having a difficult time and/or not quite themselves, that it’s okay to check in with them. One of the most significant protective factors for youth, is a caring relationship with a trusted adult. Be direct and talk openly about suicide. Be nonjudgmental and help remove the stigma about mental health issues.

Close to 20 participants joined in this training. Here are some of their comments:

“I was really impressed by the program and by the broad web of support agencies that attended the presentation. Friday Harbor is full of individuals who want to help our kids be their strongest selves!”  Katy Doran, Parent

“I gained the confidence to approach the topic of suicide without fear of the recipient thinking I presumed they are thinking about it, hence, possibly causing those thoughts if they weren’t. It is the ultimate act of showing love and compassion.”  Lowell Jons, Island Rec and Parent

“I appreciated taking the Youth Mental Health First Aid course because it gave me a more solid sense of how I might be able to help a youth in crisis. I certainly want kids to know that I’m an adult that they could come to, if they are having trouble that they don’t necessarily feel comfortable talking about with a parent or guardian, but before if that happened, I was operating strictly on instinct. This course gave me some reassurance and a foundation of ideas and resources to help me help the youth, should the occasion arise. I think that it’s definitely worth-while for adults who work with kids to try to stay aware of signs of trouble and know something about effective ways to help and I’m glad I had the opportunity to take the course.” Penelope Haskew, Youth and Family Program Director, San Juan Community Theatre and Parent

“I think Joyce and Dana did a phenomenal job relaying the information and giving us real world problems to relate to. l loved the reminder to take time and ask others if they are ok. I think this is a simple, but an overlooked thought, in a world where people would rather stare at their phones than interact with one another”. Morgan Johnston, Island Rec

“Youth Mental Health First Aid is a great course designed for adults to help identify the signs and symptoms of mental health issues amongst youth. It was so great to bring together many of our community resources to talk about the issues of suicide and depression. Our hope is to be able to help prepare members in the community to identify signs and symptoms of mental health issues, to help prevent youth suicides from taking place. Thank you all to who were able to show up. Hopefully we will be able to provide more trainings like this in the future.” Joyce Wells, Prevention Intervention Specialist, Friday Harbor Middle/High School

The ALGEE acronym, named for the program’s Koala mascot, helps reminds participants:  


Assess for riskof suicide and harm

Listen non-judgmentally

Give reassurance and information

Encourage appropriate professional help

Encourage self-help and other support strategies

Resources for teens in crisis include; Western WA. Chat Line: , The Suicide Prevention Lifeline Information, 800-273-8255, and TeenLink, 866-833-6546. In an emergency, dial 911, or go to the nearest hospital emergency room immediately.

The San Juan Island Prevention Coalition’s mission is to reduce substance abuse among youth and promote a community culture of healthy and responsible behaviors for youth and adults. Collaboration is key. Want to get involved? You’re invited to the next Board of Trustees meeting on December 15, 2017 

RSVP 360-370-5716  Like us on Facebook, too! 

by Debbi Fincher

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Get the Facts: Start Talking Now

What are the risks of underage use of alcohol, marijuana, and other drugs?

Early use of alcohol, marijuana, and other drugs puts teens at greater risk for addiction and other health problems, failing in school, and career choices limited by arrests and lack of education.

Alcohol, marijuana, and other drug use:

  •  Can begin as early as the 6th grade.
  •  Can cause more harm to the developing teen brain. Alcohol, marijuana, and other drugs can impair the areas of the brain that control motor coordination, impulse control, memory, learning and judgment. Because the teen brain is still developing, it is more vulnerable than an adult’s brain to the effects of alcohol, marijuana, and other drugs. This can lead to school failure and dropout.
  •  Is associated with the top three causes of teen deaths: accidents (including traffic fatalities and drowning), homicide, and suicide. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Over 1,800 college students die each year as a result of underage drinking.
  •  Increases the risk of STDs and pregnancy. Teens who drink and use other drugs are more likely to engage in sex and to have sex with four or more partners than teen who don’t use.  Such behavior can result in AIDS, other sexually transmitted diseases, and pregnancy.
  •  Can lead to addiction. Kids who drink before age 15 are 4 times more likely to develop alcohol problems as adults (2013 National Survey on Drug Use and Health).
  •  Is not safer at home under your supervision. Teens can consume toxic levels of alcohol and marijuana just as easily at home.  You and your teen can be held legally liable for property damage, assault, injuries, and deaths that result from underage use on your property.  If you allow your teen to drink at home, they are more likely to think it’s ok to drink or use when they are with their friends.  Learn more about Washington’s Social Host law. It is not legal to provide marijuana to minors.
  •  Can be prevented!  You are the #1 influence on your kids. The key reason kids give for not using alcohol, marijuana, or other drugs is that they don’t want to disappoint their parents (Monitoring the Future survey).  Tips for preventing drug use:
    •  Don’t accept use as a rite of passage to adulthood
    •  Set clear rules against using alcohol, marijuana, and other drugs
    •  Help your children deal with peer pressure and stress.
    •  Be a good role model – show kids you don’t need a drink to relax or celebrate
    •  Talk with them early and often about the ways alcohol and marijuana can harm them, ask questions and be a good listener
    •  Stay involved in their lives
    •  Know who their friends are, and where they are going
    •  Get help fast if your teen is already using.  Call the Washington Recovery Help Line for 24-hour emotional support, referrals and information: 1-866-789-1511
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Under the Influence…Of You

Under the Influence…of You

The Washington State Department of Health (DOH) has re-launch its Under the Influence…of You campaign. The campaign encourages parents and other influential adults to talk with teens about the risks and consequences of using marijuana.


Research shows adults are the number one influence in teens’ lives. Teens watch and listen to the adults they know and respect. When influential adults are present and engaged, teens are happier, healthier, and make better choices.

However, parents and other adults often struggle to talk with teens about marijuana. This is especially true now that marijuana is legal for anyone 21 and older. Adults may not know the facts or understand the serious risks that using marijuana can have for teens.

Under the Influence…of You

The Under the Influence…of You campaign reminds parents and other trusted adults about the influence they have on the teens in their lives, encourages them to talk with teens about the risks and consequences of marijuana, and provides tips on how to have effective conversations.


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Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids-The Flavor Trap: How Tobacco Companies are Luring Kids with Candy-Flavored E-Cig and Cigars

“In recent years, there has been an explosion of sweet-flavored tobacco products, especially e-cigarettes and cigars.

These products are available in a wide assortment of flavors that seem like they belong in a candy store or ice cream parlor – like gummy bear, cotton candy, peanut butter cup, cookies ‘n cream and pop rocks for e-cigarettes and chocolate, wild berry, watermelon, lemonade and cherry dynamite for cigars. A 2014 study identified more than 7,700 unique e-cigarette flavors, with an average of more than 240 new flavors being added per month. Sales of flavored cigars have increased by nearly 50 percent since 2008, and flavored cigars made up more than half (52.1 percent) of the U.S. cigar market in 2015, according to Nielsen convenience store market scanner data. Further, the number of unique cigar flavor names more than doubled from 2008 to 2015, from 108 to 250.

These sweet products have fueled the popularity of e-cigarettes and cigars among youth.

While there has been a steep drop in youth use of traditional cigarettes, overall youth use of any tobacco product has remained steady in recent years due to the popularity of tobacco products like cigars and e-cigarettes – products that are predominantly flavored. From 2011 to 2015, current use of e-cigarettes among high school students increased more than ten-fold – from 1.5 percent to 16 percent – according to the National Youth Tobacco Survey (while the 2016 Monitoring the Future survey shows the first evidence of a decline in youth use of e-cigarettes, it also shows that e-cigarettes continue to be the most popular tobacco products among kids). In addition, more high school boys now smoke cigars than cigarettes – 14 percent vs. 11.8 percent.

Studies show that flavors play a major role in youth use of tobacco products such as e-cigarettes and cigars.

A government study found that 81 percent of kids who have ever used tobacco products started with a flavored product, including 81 percent who have ever tried e-cigarettes and 65 percent who have ever tried cigars. Youth also cite flavors as a major reason for their current use of non-cigarette tobacco products, with 81.5 percent of youth e-cigarette users and 73.8 percent of youth cigar users saying they used the product “because they come in flavors I like.”

Tobacco companies have a long history of developing and marketing flavored tobacco products as “starter” products that attract kids.

Flavors improve the taste and reduce the harshness of tobacco products, making them more appealing and easier for beginners – often kids – to try the product and ultimately become addicted. Since most tobacco users start before age 18, flavored tobacco products play a critical role in the industry’s marketing playbook. Flavors can also create the impression that a product is less harmful than it really is.

Strong FDA regulation is needed to protect kids from flavored tobacco products.

After years of delay, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2016 issued new rules for previously unregulated tobacco products, including e-cigarettes and cigars. Despite the strong evidence that flavored tobacco products are attracting and addicting a new generation of kids, legislation has been introduced in Congress that would greatly weaken FDA oversight of e-cigarettes and cigars, including the many candy-flavored products on the market. Congress should reject these proposals. In fact, the FDA should strengthen its rules by banning all flavored tobacco products.”

Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids

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The Science…Smart Approaches to Marijuana, Preventing another Big Tobacco (SAM)

Big Marijuana Claims

Scientific Facts

Legalization is about getting rid of the “War on Drugs” Legalization is about one thing: making a small number of business people rich. If it were about ending the War on Drugs, recent law changes would be limited to decriminalization. Rather, a host of business interests are getting involved with the legal marijuana trade in Colorado and elsewhere. They have set up private equity firms and fundraising organizations to attract investors and promote items such as marijuana food items, oils, and other products.We also know these industries target the poor and disenfranchised[i] – and we can expect the marijuana industry to do the same in order to increase profits.
Marijuana is not addictive. Science has proven – and all major scientific and medical organizations agree – that marijuana is both addictive and harmful to the human brain, especially when used as an adolescent. One in every six 16 year-olds (and one in every eleven adults) who try marijuana will become addicted to it.[ii]
Marijuana MIGHT be psychologically addictive, but its addiction doesn’t produce physical symptoms. To your brain, addiction is addiction. Different addictions have different symptoms, but whether its food, sex, marijuana, or heroin – your brain knows it wants more of that feeling of pleasure. Just as with alcohol and tobacco, most chronic marijuana users who attempt to stop “cold turkey” will experience an array of withdrawal symptoms such as irritability, restlessness, anxiety, depression, insomnia, and/or cravings.[iii] This signals that marijuana can be addictive. Science has shown that 1 in 6 kids who ever try marijuana, according to the National Institutes of Health, will become addicted to the drug. Today’s marijuana is not your “Woodstock weed” – it can be 5-10 times stronger than marijuana of the past.[iv]
Lots of smart, successful people have smoked marijuana. It doesn’t make you dumb. Just because some smart people have done some dumb things, it doesn’t mean that everyone gets away with it. In fact, research shows that adolescents who smoke marijuana once a week over a two-year period are almost six times more likely than nonsmokers to drop out of school and over three times less likely to enter college.[v] In a study of over 1,000 people in 2012, scientists found that using marijuana regularly before the age of 18 resulted in an average IQ of six to eight fewer points at age 38 versus to those who did not use the drug before 18.[vi] These results still held for those who used regularly as teens, but stopped after 18. Researchers controlled for alcohol and other drug use as well in this study. So yes, some people may get away with using it, but not everyone.
No one goes to treatment for marijuana addiction. More young people are in treatment for marijuana abuse or dependence than for the use of alcohol and all other drugs.[vii]
Marijuana can’t kill or hurt you. Marijuana may not produce direct overdoses, but tobacco rarely, if ever, does either. But we would not say tobacco can’t kill or hurt you, and we would not say marijuana cannot do these things either. Emergency room admissions for marijuana use now exceed those for heroin and are continuing to rise.[viii] The link between suicide and marijuana is strong, as are car accidents – too many of which result in death.
Marijuana does not affect the workplace. Marijuana use impairs the ability to function effectively and safely on the job and increases work-related absences, tardiness, accidents, compensation claims, and job turnover.[ix]
Marijuana simply makes you happier over the long term. Regular marijuana use is associated with lower satisfaction with intimate romantic relationships, work, family, friends, leisure pursuits, and life in general.[x]
Marijuana users are clogging our prisons. We shouldn’t give marijuana users criminal records nor deprive them of a second chance, but it’s far from the truth to say they are clogging our prisons. A survey by the Bureau of Justice Statistics showed that 0.7% of all state inmates were behind bars for marijuana possession only (with many of them pleading down from more serious crimes). In total, one tenth of one percent (0.1 percent) of all state prisoners were marijuana-possession offenders with no prior sentences. Other independent research has shown that the risk of arrest for each “joint,” or marijuana cigarette, smoked is about 1 arrest for every 12,000 joints.[xi]
Marijuana is medicine. Marijuana may contain medical components, like opium does. But we don’t smoke opium to get the effects of morphine. Similarly we don’t need to smoke marijuana to get its potential medical benefit.[xii]We need more research.
The sick and dying need medical marijuana programs to stay alive. Research shows that very few of those seeking a recommendation for medical marijuana have cancer, HIV/AIDS, glaucoma, or multiple sclerosis;[xiii] and in most states that permits the use of medical marijuana, less than 2-3% of users report having cancer, HIV/AIDS, glaucoma, MS, or other life-threatening diseases.[xiv]
Marijuana should be rescheduled to facilitate its medical and legitimate use. Rescheduling is a source of major confusion. Marijuana meets the technical definition of Schedule I because it is not an individual product with a defined dose. You can’t dose anything that is smoked or used in a crude form. However, components of marijuana can be scheduled for medical use, and that research is fully legitimate. That is very different than saying a joint is medicine and should be rescheduled.[xv]It is important to note, too, that rescheduling does not generally correspond with criminalization or penalization. So if your target is to reduce penalties for use, focusing on rescheduling is the wrong target.
I smoked marijuana and I am fine, why should I worry about today’s kids using it? Today’s marijuana is not your Woodstock Weed. The psychoactive ingredient in marijuana—THC—has increased almost six-fold in average potency during the past thirty years.[xvi]
Marijuana doesn’t cause lung cancer. The evidence on lung cancer and marijuana is mixed – just like it was 100 years ago for smoking – but marijuana contains 50% more carcinogens than tobacco smoke[xvii] and marijuana smokers report serious symptoms of chronic bronchitis and other respiratory illnesses.[xviii] True, there is no definitive evidence right now to claim that marijuana causes lung cancer.
Marijuana is not a “gateway” drug. We know that most people who use pot WON’T go onto other drugs; but 99% of people who are addicted to other drugs STARTED with alcohol and marijuana. So, indeed, marijuana use makes addiction to other drugs more likely.[xix]
Marijuana does not cause mental illness. Actually, beginning in the 1980s, scientists have uncovered a direct link between marijuana use and mental illness. According to a study published in the British Medical Journal, daily use among adolescent girls is associated with a fivefold increase in the risk of depression and anxiety.[xx] Youth who begin smoking marijuana at an earlier age are more likely to have an impaired ability to experience normal emotional responses.[xxi]The link between marijuana use and mental health extends beyond anxiety and depression. Marijuana users have a six times higher risk of schizophrenia[xxii], are significantly more likely to development other psychotic illnesses.
Marijuana makes you a better driver, especially when compared to alcohol. Just because you may go 35 MPH in a 65 MPH zone versus 85 MPH if you are drunk, it does not mean you are driving safely! In fact, marijuana intoxication doubles your risk of a car crash according to the most exhaustive research reviews ever conducted on the subject.[xxiii]
Smoking or vaporizing is the only way to get the medical benefits of marijuana. No modern medicine is smoked. And we already have a pill on the market available to people with the active ingredient of marijuana (THC) in it – Marinol. That is available at pharmacies today. Other drugs are also in development, including Sativex (for MS and cancer pain) and Epidiolex (for epilepsy). Both of these drugs are available today through research programs.[xxiv]
Medical marijuana has not increased marijuana use in the general population. Studies are mixed on this, but it appears that if a state has medical “dispensaries” (stores) and home cultivation, then the potency of marijuana and the use and problems among youth are higher than in states without such programs, according to research by RAND scientists.[xxv] This confirms research in 2012 from five epidemiological researchers at Columbia University. Using results from several large national surveys, they concluded, “residents of states with medical marijuana laws had higher odds of marijuana use and marijuana abuse/dependence than residents of states without such laws.[xxvi]
Legalization is inevitable – the vast majority of the country wants it, and states keep legalizing in succession. The increase in support for legalization reflects the tens of millions of dollars poured into the legalization movement over the past 30 years. Legalization is not inevitable and there is evidence to show that support has stalled since 2013.
Alcohol is legal, why shouldn’t marijuana also be legal? Our currently legal drugs – alcohol and tobacco – provide a good example, since both youth and adults use them far more frequently than illegal drugs. According to recent surveys, alcohol use is used by 52% of Americans and tobacco is used by 27% of Americans, but marijuana is used by only 8% of Americans.[xxvii]




Colorado has been a good experiment in legalization. Colorado has already seen problems with this policy. For example, according to the Associated Press: “Two Denver Deaths Linked to Recreational Marijuana Use”. One includes the under-aged college student who jumped to his death after ingesting a marijuana cookie.The number of parents calling the poison-control hotline to report their kids had consumed marijuana has risen significantly in Colorado.Marijuana edibles and marijuana vaporizers have been found in middle and high schools.[xxviii]
We can get tax revenue if we legalize marijuana. With increased use, public health costs will also rise, likely outweighing any tax revenues from legal marijuana. For every dollar gained in alcohol and tobacco taxes, ten dollars are lost in legal, health, social, and regulatory costs.[xxix] And so far in Colorado, tax revenue has fallen short of expectations.
I just want to get high. The government shouldn’t be able to tell me that I can’t. Legalization is not about just “getting high.” By legalizing marijuana, the United States would be ushering in a new, for-profit industry – not different from Big Tobacco. Already, private holding groups and financiers have raised millions of start-up dollars to promote businesses that will sell marijuana and marijuana-related merchandise. Cannabis food and candy is being marketed to children and are already responsible for a growing number of marijuana-related ER visits.[xxx]Edibles with names such as “Ring Pots” and “Pot Tarts” are inspired by favorite candies of children and dessert products such as “Ring Pops” and “Pop Tarts.” Moreover, a large vaporization industry is now emerging and targeting youth, allowing young people and minors to use marijuana more easily in public places without being detected.[xxxi]


Legalization would remove the black market and stop enriching gangs. Criminal enterprises do not receive the majority of their funding from marijuana. Furthermore, with legal marijuana taxed and only available to adults, a black market will continue to thrive. The black market and illegal drug dealers will continue to function – and even flourish[xxxii] – under legalization, as people seek cheaper, untaxed marijuana.



[i] See for example, Jones-Webb R, McKee P, Hannan P, Wall M, Pham L, Erickson D, Wagenaar A. Alcohol and malt liquor availability and promotion and homicide in inner cities. Substance Use & Misuse. 2008;43:159–177. Jones-Webb R, Snowden LR, Herd D, Short B, Hannan P. Alcohol-related problems among black, Hispanic and white men: The contribution of neighborhood poverty. Journal of Studies on Alcohol.1997;58:539–545.  Karriker-Jaffe KJ. Areas of disadvantage: A systematic review of effects of area-level socioeconomic status on substance use outcomes. Drug and Alcohol Review. 2011;30:84–95. Karriker-Jaffe KJ, Kaskutas LA. Neighborhood socioeconomic context of alcohol use: A measurement validation study [Abstract 720] Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 33, Supplement.2009;S1:190A.

[ii]Anthony, J.C., Warner, L.A., & Kessler, R.C. (1994). Comparative epidemiology of dependence on tobacco, alcohol, controlled substances, and inhalants: Basic findings from the National Comorbidity Survey. Experiential and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 2

[iii] Budney, A.J., et al. (2008). Comparison of cannabis and tobacco withdrawal: Severity and Contribution to Relapse. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 35(4).

[iv] ElSohly M.A., Ross S.A., Mehmedic Z., Arafat R., Yi B., & Banahan B.F. 3rd. (2004). Potency trends of delta9-THC and other cannabinoids in confiscated marijuana from 1980–1997.Journal of Forensic Sciences 45(1), 24-30; Mehmedic, Z., Pharm, M., Suman, C., Slade, D., Denham, H. Foster, S., et al. (2010). Potency trends of D9-THC and other cannabinoids in confiscated cannabis preparations from 1993 to 2008.Journal of Forensic Sciences 55(5), 1209–1217.

[v] Fergusson, D.M., et al. (2003). Cannabis and Educational Achievements. Addiction, 98(12).

[vi] Meier, M.H. (2012). Persistent cannabis users show neuropsychological decline from childhood to midlife. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

[vii] SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality (2010), Substance abuse treatment admissions by primary substance of abuse according to sex, age group, race, and ethnicity, United States [Data table from Quick Statistics from the Drug and Alcohol Services Information System]. Available at; See also

[viii] SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality. (2011). Drug abuse warning network, 2008: National estimates of drug-related emergency department visits (HHS Publication No. SMA 11-4618). Rockville, MD: Author.

[ix] NIDA (2012). Marijuanna abuse. NIDA Research Report Series (NIH Publication No. 12-3859), p. 8.

[x] Fergusson, D.M., & Boden, J.M. (2008). Cannabis use and later life outcomes. Addiction, 103, 969–976.

[xi] “Substance Abuse and Treatment, State and Federal Prisoners, 1997.” BJS Special Report, January 1999, NCJ 172871. and Bureau of Justice Statistics (2004). The Survey of Inmates in State Correctional Facilities and the Survey of Inmates in Federal Correctional Facilities Questionnaire. Available

[xii] See American Medical Association Also see IOM, Marijuana and Medicine: Assessing the Scientific Base.

[xiii] Nunberg, H., Kilmer, B., Pacula, R.L., & Burgdorf, J.R. (2011) An analysis of applicants presenting to a medical marijuana specialty practice in California. Journal of Drug Policy Analysis, 4(1), 1–16.

[xiv] Colorado Department of Public Health. (2012). Medical marijuanna registry program update (as of September 30, 2012). Retrieved January 2013 from

[xv] See Sabet, K. Should Marijuana Be Rescheduled?

[xvi] ElSohly M.A., Ross S.A., Mehmedic Z., Arafat R., Yi B., & Banahan B.F. 3rd. (2004). Potency trends of delta9-THC and other cannabinoids in confiscated marijuana from 1980–1997.Journal of Forensic Sciences 45(1), 24-30; Mehmedic, Z., Pharm, M., Suman, C., Slade, D., Denham, H. Foster, S., et al. (2010). Potency trends of D9-THC and other cannabinoids in confiscated cannabis preparations from 1993 to 2008.Journal of Forensic Sciences 55(5), 1209–1217.

[xvii] British Lung Foundation. (2012). The impact of cannabis on your lungs. London: Author. Retrieved January 2013 from

[xviii] Tetrault, J.M., Crothers, K., Moore, B.A., Mehra, R., Concato, J., & Fiellin, D.A. (2007). Effects of marijuana smoking on pulmonary function and respiratory complications: A systematic review. Archives of Internal Medicine, 167, 221–228.

[xix] Schweinsburg A.D., Brown, S.A., & Tapert, S.F. (2008). The influence of marijuana use on neurocognitive functioning in adolescents. Current Drug Abuse Review, 1(1), 99–111.

[xx] Patton, G.C., et al. (2002). Cannabis use and mental health in young people: cohort study. British Medical Journal, 325(7374).

[xxi] Limonero, J.T., et al. (2006). Perceived emotional intelligence and its relation to tobacco and cannabis use among university students. Psicothema, 18.

[xxii] Andréasson S, et al. (1987). Cannabis and Schizophrenia: A longitudinal study of Swedish conscripts. Lancet, 2(8574).

[xxiii] M. Asbridge, J. A. Hayden, J. L. Cartwright. Acute cannabis consumption and motor vehicle collision risk: systematic review of observational studies and meta-analysis. BMJ, 2012; 344 (feb09 2): e536 DOI: 10.1136/bmj.e536

[xxiv] See IOM, Marijuana and Medicine: Assessing the Scientific Base.

[xxv] Pacula, Rosalie L., David Powell, Paul Heaton, and Eric L. Sevigny. (2014). Assessing the Effects of Medical Marijuana Laws on Marijuana Use: The Devil is in the Details. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management. DOI: 10.1002/pam.21804

[xxvi] Cerda, M. et al. (2011). Medical marijuana laws in 50 states: investigating the relationship between statelegalization of medical marijuana and marijuana use, abuse and dependence.

Drug and Alcohol  Dependence Found at ; Wall, M. et al (2011).Adolescent Marijuana Use from 2002 to 2008: Higher in States with Medical Marijuana Laws, Cause Still Unclear, Annals of epidemiology, Vol 21 issue 9 Pages 714-716.

[xxvii] NSDUH, Summary of National Findings 2012. Accessed

[xxviii] See SAM 420 Report here: Also see New York Times, Healy, J. After 5 Months of Sales, Colorado Sees Downside of a Legal High

[xxix] Updating estimates of the economic costs of alcohol abuse in the United States: Estimates, update methods, and data.

Report prepared for the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Accessed; Urban Institute and Brookings Institution (2012, October 15). State and local alcoholic beverage tax revenue, selected years 1977-2010. Tax Policy Center. Accessed displayafact.cfm?Docid=399; Saul, S. (2008, August 30). Government gets hooked on tobacco tax billions. The New York Times. Accessed html?em&_r=0; for Federal estimates, see Urban Institute and Brookings Institution (2012, October 15). State and local tobacco tax revenue, selected years 1977-2010. Tax Policy Center.

Accessed http://www.; Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids (n.d.). Toll of tobacco in the United States of America. Accessed

[xxx] Alface, I. (2013, May 27). Children Poisoned by Candy-looking Marijuana Products. Nature World News. Accessed; Jaslow, R. (2013, 28 May). Laxer marijuana laws linked to increase in kids’ accidental poisonings CBS News. Accessed

[xxxi] See for example Bryan, M. (2014, 18 April). Pot Smoke And Mirrors: Vaporizer Pens Hide Marijuana Use. NPR 90.9 WBUR. Accessed

[xxxii] Baca, R. (2014, 26 February). Drug dealer says legal pot helps his business (video). The Cannabist. Accessed:; Gurman, S. (2014, April 4). Legal pot in Colorado hasn’t stopped black market. Associated Press. Accessed

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Haunted House Fundraiser for SJIPC Youth Leadership Trainings

Come support our youth at this fundraising opportunity, THANKS to Friday Harbor Jolly Trolley and the San Juan County Fair & Fairgrounds…We are thrilled to be involved! Hope to see you there! The WEEKEND BEFORE Halloween-Friday, Oct. 27 and Saturday, October 28. Times are listed below. Thanks for your support! It’s sure to be a Howling Good time!

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